Jeffrey FleisherAssociate Professor
As an archaeologist of Africa, my past research has focused on two distinct, but related issues: the role of rural and non-elite populations in the political economy of small-scale complex societies, and the way that people use material culture and space in the establishment and maintenance of social inequality and power. I have been exploring these issues through a number of projects on the East African ‘Swahili’ coast that focus on 7th- to 16th-century AD urban polities and rural settlements. The ancient Swahili of the eastern African littoral are often cast solely as Islamic merchant entrepreneurs, living in elaborate stone-built towns (stonetowns), and seeking to accumulate prestigious overseas goods. My work has sought to place this powerful minority and their elite spaces in wider context, through investigating the lower ranking, non-elite majority (in both the countryside and town), and by contextualizing elite urban spaces within the larger spatial practices of the town. These research strands have led me toward investigations of the more ephemeral parts of the ancient Swahili world, including villages, impermanent architecture, and open/empty spaces. My work on rural and non-elite parts of the Swahili world focused on Pemba Island, Tanzania, where I conducted survey and excavations from 1999-2006 (partly in collaboration with Adria LaViolette and Bertram Mapunda). This research has sought to show how these people participated in and were important to the multiple scales of the Swahili world: in coastal towns, the regional political economy, and the Indian Ocean world.
My current research focuses on the use of material culture and space in Swahili public and private life. Beginning in 2009, I have been working with Stephanie Wynne-Jones (University of York) at the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Songo Mnara, a monumental 15th- to 16th-century Swahili town on the southern Tanzanian coast. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation and Arts and Humanities Research Council, focuses on domestic contexts in and outside houses, as well as the first-ever effort to understand public spaces within a Swahili urban context. This includes investigating how open space was created and maintained, the types of productive and practical activities occurring within central open areas, as well as ritual activities associated with centrally-located tombs, mosques, and cemeteries. Methodologically, this project includes scientific analyses new to east African archaeology, including geophysical surveys and geoarchaeological research, carried out in collaboration with colleagues in the United Kingdom. This work contributes to a nascent literature on the way ‘empty’ spaces in urban milieu were locations where social power could be established and maintained, as well as the way that monuments (like Swahili tombs) and the spaces that surround them may have been active sites of memory-making, a part of the strategic use of the past for the present.
Since 2009, I have directed the Rice University Archaeological Field School, which takes place every other year at Songo Mnara. For information, please visit the Field School website.
A story about the project in Rice Magazine can be found here and one in Archaeology Magazine, here.
Information about the project at Songo Mnara can be found here.
My project on Tana Tradition ceramics can be found here.
Information about my collaborative work in Houston's Fourth Ward (Freedman's Town), including field reports, can be found here.
Introduction to Archaeology (205), African Prehistory (312), Early Civilizations (363), Heritage Management (456), Landscape Archaeology (355), Advanced Archaeological Theory (460), Archaeological Field Techniques (362/562)
2013 Fleisher, Jeffrey and Adria LaViolette. The early Swahili trade village of Tumbe, Pemba Island, Tanzania, AD 600-950. Antiquity 87:1151-1168.
2013 Fleisher, Jeffrey. Performance, monumentality and the 'built exterior' on the eastern African Swahili coast. Azania:Archaeological Research in Africa 48(2):263-281.
2012 Fleisher, Jeffrey, Kathryn M. de Luna, and Susan K. McIntosh (eds.). Thinking Across the African Past: Archaeological, Linguistic, and Genetic Research on the Precolonial African Past. African Archaeological Review 29(2/3):75-317.
Jeffrey and Stephanie Wynne-Jones. Finding Meaning in Ancient Swahili Spatial Practices. African Archaeological Review 29(2/3):171-207.
2012 Wynne-Jones, Stephanie and Jeffrey Fleisher. Coins in Context: Local Economy, Value and Practice on the East African Swahili Coast. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 22(1):19-36.
2012 Pollard, Edward, Jeffrey Fleisher, and Stephanie Wynne-Jones. Beyond the Stone Town: Maritime Architecture at fourteenth to fifteenth-century Songo Mnara, Tanzania. Journal of Maritime Archaeology 7(1).
2011 Fleisher, Jeffrey and Stephanie Wynne-Jones. Ceramics and the Early Swahili: Deconstructing the Early Tana Tradition. African Archaeological Review 28(4):245-278.
2010a Fleisher, Jeffrey. Rituals of Consumption and the Politics of Feasting on the Eastern African Coast, AD 700-1500. Journal of World Prehistory 23(4):195-217.
2010b Fleisher, Jeffrey. Swahili Synoecism: Rural Settlements and Town Formation on the Central East African Coast, AD 750-1500. Journalof Field Archaeology 35(3):265-282.
2010c Fleisher, Jeffrey. Housing the Market: Swahili Merchants and Regional Marketing on the East African Coast, Seventh to Sixteenth Centuries AD. In Archaeological Approaches to Market Exchange in Ancient Societies, Christopher Garraty and Barbara Stark, eds. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, pp. 141-160.
2010a Fleisher, Jeffrey and Stephanie Wynne-Jones. Authorisation and the Process of Power: The View from African Archaeology. Journal of World Prehistory 23(4):177-193.
2009 LaViolette, Adria and Jeffrey Fleisher. The Urban History of a Rural Place: Swahili Archaeology on Pemba Island, Tanzania, 700-1500 AD. International Journal of African Historical Studies 42(3):433-455.
2007 Fleisher, Jeffrey and Adria LaViolette. The Changing Power of Swahili Houses, AD Fourteenth to Nineteenth Centuries. In The Durable House: House Society Models in Archaeology, Robin A. Beck, ed. Occasional Paper No. 35, Center for Archaeological Investigations. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University, pp. 175-197.
2005 LaViolette, Adria and Jeffrey Fleisher. The Archaeology of African Cities and their Countrysides. In African Archaeology: A Critical Introduction, Ann B. Stahl, ed. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 327-352.
1999 Fleisher, Jeffrey and Adria LaViolette. Elusive Wattle-and-Daub: Finding the Hidden Majority in the Archaeology of the Swahili. Azania 34:87-108.